Archives for posts with tag: natural gas

Natural gas is set to account for an increasing share of the global energy mix in coming years, with gas consumption growing by an average of around 1.5%-2% a year out to 2040, according to energy forecasting agencies such as the IEA. And based on recent trends, if the consensus views on natural gas prove accurate, the implications for the offshore and LNG carrier fleets are likely to be significant.

Stepping On The Pedal

In 2016, global natural gas demand stood at an estimated 347bn cfd, up by 24% on the 280bn cfd consumed in 2006. Demand for natural gas in recent years has been driven by industrialisation in developing economies (Chinese gas demand, for example, grew at a CAGR of 13% in 2006-16) and environmental concerns the world over. Historically, the majority of trade in natural gas has been by pipeline, for instance from Eurasia to Europe. In 2015, pipelines still accounted for 68% of natural gas volumes moved globally.

However, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has become an increasingly important form in which gas is traded, even given the costs of complex liquefaction and regasification facilities. Over 50% of existing nameplate liquefaction capacity at LNG export terminals (349mtpa globally) has come online since 2005. As a corollary, from start 2006 to start March 2017, the LNG carrier fleet increased from 193 to 479 vessels and tripled in total capacity to 70.2m cubic metres of LNG.

Shifting It Up A Gear

Growth in the seaborne LNG trade is in turn closely linked with growth in offshore gas production, as major LNG exporters such as Qatar and more recently Australia use offshore gas fields to provide feedstock to LNG trains. Qatar accounted for 30% of LNG exports and 22% of existing liquefaction capacity in 2016, all fed via offshore gas, mostly from the giant North Field. In 2006, offshore fields accounted for 28% of global gas production and by 2016, 31%. This is set to rise to 32% (119bn cfd) in 2017, mainly due to field start-ups off Australia that are to feed LNG projects like Wheatstone. Finding, developing and supporting offshore gas fields on Australia’s NW Shelf has created demand for a range of vessels from the offshore fleet of over 13,500 units.

More Gas In The Tank

The exploitation of these remote reserves has also spawned the FLNG concept – vessels that can be used to exploit otherwise stranded gas. The LNG markets are clearly challenged at present but in the long term, planned FLNG projects in Australia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Mauritania and other areas could potentially sustain offshore gas production growth. Another major source of gas production growth has been the US shale gas sector, where production rose from 4bn cfd in 2007 to 48bn cfd in 2016. The US accounts for over 50% of liquefaction capacity under construction (while some planned projects entail liquefaction of shale gas on near-shore FLNGs) and is set to become a major LNG exporter in coming years.

So offshore gas production has grown as a share of total global gas production, as has US shale gas. Both trends can create opportunities for LNG and offshore vessels. And if, in line with consensus expectations, gas continues to grow as a share of the energy mix, then these trends may have a long and interesting road ahead.

SIW1265:Global Natural Gas Production And LNG Export Capacity

Shipping plays a major role in the world’s industries, facilitating the transport of large volumes of raw and processed materials. However, the maritime sector forms a much more important part of the global supply chain for some commodities and industries than others. Comparing world seaborne trade in a range of cargoes to global production helps to make this abundantly clear.

Still In The Limelight

Looking at a range of cargo types (see graph), less than 50% of global production of each was shipped by sea in 2015, with a significant share of output consumed domestically. However, seaborne transport still accounts for a sizeable proportion of many of these cargoes, and a wide range of factors influence the level of dependence on shipping of each.

Compelling Cues

One obvious driver is the location of production and consumption. Crude oil is the commodity most reliant on shipping, with some 46% of crude output last year exported by sea, with oil output concentrated in a relatively small number of countries. Similarly, around 41% of global iron ore production was shipped last year, with limited domestic demand in key producers Australia and Brazil. Absolute and relative regional productivity also has an influence. Just 15% of coal output was shipped in 2015, with half of the 6.5bt of coal produced globally last year output in China, nearly all of which was consumed domestically. Still, China was the second largest coal importer in 2015, with regional coal price arbitrages driving trade.

Another key factor is the availability and efficiency of other transport modes. Twice as much natural gas is exported via pipeline than in a liquefied state by sea, with just 9% of natural gas output in 2015 shipped as LNG. Meanwhile, the level of processing of materials also has an impact. Oil and steel products are less reliant on shipping than crude oil and iron ore, with refineries and steel mills often built to service domestic demand.

Raising The Drama

However, the growth of ‘refining hubs’ has raised the share of refinery throughput shipped by almost 10 percentage points since 2000. This kind of trend is an important driver of shipping demand. The share of output of the featured commodities shipped rose from an estimated 22% in 2000 to 26% in 2015, generating c.720mt of extra trade. This equates to an additional 1% p.a. of trade growth, boosting trade expansion to a CAGR of 3.7% in 2000-15. Trade in some cargoes is more sensitive to shifts in the share of output shipped than others, but across the featured cargoes, a further change of 0.5% in the share of output shipped could create another 130mt of trade, 2% of current seaborne volumes.

No Sign Of Stage Fright

So, while trade in even the cargo most reliant on shipping accounts for less than half of global output, the world economy today is still dependent on the seaborne transport of 11bt of all cargo types. Overall growth in production and the distance to consumers are also clearly important demand drivers for shipping, but for the world’s industries there’s no denying the main part that shipping still plays in the supply of raw materials. Have a nice day!

SIW1243 Graph of the Week

In recent years, Australia has been a major growth area for offshore gas production and a key driver of offshore CAPEX. However, the prospects for Australian gas projects that have yet to be sanctioned are looking increasingly uncertain due to weaker LNG prices and cost overruns at existing projects. The outlook for Australian offshore projects may also be complicated by the recent Australian general election.

Gas Powered

Historically, the majority of offshore oil and gas production in Australia has been produced from Southern Australia, particularly from the Gippsland Basin. However, E&P activity in recent years has moved offshore North West Australia, where the emphasis is on large, deepwater gas projects. As a result, Australian offshore gas production increased with a robust CAGR of 7.9% from 2010 to 2015, reaching 5.88bn cfd last year and making Australia the fifth largest offshore natural gas producer globally.

Ample Supplies

This trend is expected to continue with the start-up of Phase One of the Gorgon gas project earlier in the year, increasing Australia’s 2016 estimated offshore gas production to 6.44bn cfd. This is probably just the beginning as Australia is projected to become an even bigger offshore gas producer. The country currently accounts for 10 projects that are undergoing EPC or Installation & Commissioning. Foremost amongst these are gas mega-projects such as Chevron’s Wheatstone, Shell’s Prelude and Inpex’s Ichthys LNG developments, which are scheduled to start-up in 2017. This is anticipated to accelerate Australia’s projected offshore gas production to 9.10bn cfd in 2017, before levelling off at 10.9bn cfd in 2020.

Moreover, onshore projects like Gladstone LNG and Australia Pacific LNG, which are now online, have begun to ramp up production. This is likely to lead to a rapid growth in available supply, arguably pressuring market fundamentals and so weakening spot LNG prices. Consequently, the combination of low spot prices, abundant supply and the development of associated gas reserves off Australia could hit the commercial prospects of many potential gas projects off Australia. Additionally, spot gas purchases could also gain favour against term contracts, possibly pressuring gas project feasibility.

Taking On Water

Currently, 41 projects representing an estimated $158bn in CAPEX have not entered EPC and 97% of the reserves from these projects are gas. Given the current challenging outlook for gas project economics, these projects might not receive an FID as operators could delay sanctioning until conditions improve, possibly abandoning some projects altogether. The situation could be exacerbated by Australia’s general election, which (at the time of writing) looks likely to produce a hung parliament, muddying energy policy waters and possibly putting a domestic gas reservation policy on future projects on the political agenda. That being said, the drive for environmentally friendly fuels could boost gas demand and improve the viability of gas projects in the longer term.

Political issues aside though, oversupply and low gas prices are key. Due to these factors, the near term investment outlook is very uncertain. However, with a project backlog of $158bn, offshore Australia still retains massive long term potential.


Plagued by constant blackouts and power shortages, Egypt appears to be facing its worst energy crisis in decades. However, following the historic discovery of the giant gas field Zohr offshore Egypt in August this year and revived interest from IOCs, it seems that the tables are set to turn. Indeed, after a period of gas production decline, Egypt’s energy outlook is getting increasingly bright.

Slide Down The Gas Pyramid

Until recently, Egypt’s gas production story had been one of growth: production climbed from 1.68 to 5.76 bn cfd between 2000-2009 and in 2003, it was sufficient to kick-start LNG exports. However, a combination of political unrest (notably the Arab Spring of 2011) and rising population has resulted in natural gas supply shortages over the last 5 years. Domestic gas demand has on average grown by 8% y-o-y, eventually outstripping supply. As a result, Egypt has been forced to re-route LNG destined for exports to domestic consumption. Indeed, at the start of 2014, BG announced it was breaking its contracts because it was unable to export enough gas. This year, Egypt resorted to importing LNG from Qatar – a bitter moment for the previous exporter.

Enter Zohr

They say that when you hit bottom, the only way is up and for Egypt, this seems to be the case. Earlier this year, ENI made what is believed to be the largest ever gas discovery in the Mediterranean, named Zohr. The field is part of the Levantine Basin, home to other prolific gas finds such as the Israeli Leviathan field. ENI puts the find down to different use of sequencing models, concentrating on carbonate rather than classical sand reservoirs. The gas giant (estimated to hold 30 tcf of lean gas) is located in water depths of 1,450m, providing an exciting departure from typical shallow exploration of mature basins in the region. Additionally, BP announced a $12 billion investment in Egypt’s West Nile Delta project: another deepwater discovery with 5 tcf of gas resources. A move to deeper waters creates opportunity for subsea development, the current production solution of choice in all of the country’s active deepwater fields. Out of the 68 active subsea units in Egypt, 40 are operated by ENI and 8 by BP. It is likely that these operators will continue to implement subsea development in their future projects.

Clash Of The Giants

Elsewhere, the discovery of Zohr was not such welcome news. There were plans to import gas via a pipeline from the Tamar field and (once in production) the competing gas giant, Leviathan, in Israel. Plans for the Leviathan field will now have to be redrawn and potentially accelerated if Israel wants a claim of the region’s LNG exports. However, following extensive regulatory and anti-trust objections, its start-up date remains uncertain.

Nevertheless, it is clear that Egypt’s fortunes are turning. The Zohr discovery, alongside other scheduled start-ups, will strengthen Egypt’s energy balance in the long-term. And the story does not end here: it has been reported that there are 7 other deepwater blocks with similar lithology to ENI’s. There is evidently a revived interest in the Levantine basin, as IOCs begin to wonder where the next giant could be hiding.


Natural gas demand and onshore and offshore production data is now available in Offshore Intelligence Monthly, split out by region and country on pages 3, 6-7 and 20-25. Analysing this data, it is apparent that the offshore hydrocarbons cake just keeps on getting bigger.

Since 1993, world combined offshore oil and gas production has increased by 58%, to 43.7m boepd in 2013; and between 2013 and 2023, it is forecast to increase by a further 35%, to 58.9m barrels oil equivalent per day (boepd). While oil is playing its part in this, gas is proving an even more potent rising agent in the offshore mix, of which it is taking an increasing share.

Measuring the Ingredients

As the Graph of the Month shows, growth rates for offshore oil and gas production have moved more or less in line y-o-y, with gas consistently ahead of oil as hitherto undeveloped historical offshore gas discoveries are brought onstream. While offshore gas production grew with a 3.8% CAGR from 1993 to 2013, oil exhibited a 1.4% CAGR. The spread between gas and oil production is forecast to continue 2013-23, with gas and oil production CAGRs of 4.2% and 2.0% respectively. It is thus expected that offshore gas production will almost achieve parity in volume terms with offshore oil by 2023, accounting for over 49% of offshore hydrocarbons output (versus 32% in 1993).

Energy Hunger

The strength of gas in the offshore production mix in part reflects faster historical and anticipated growth in gas demand. Since 2009, oil demand growth has stagnated in OECD countries whereas gas demand growth has remained firm, averaging 3.0% p.a. 2010-13 with a rate of 2.1% projected for 2014. In non-OECD countries, gas demand growth averaged 4.7% over the 2010-13 period, compared to 3.9% for oil demand. Similarly, 2014 demand growth is forecast at 3.7% for gas and 2.7% for oil. As non-OECD countries continue to industrialise, demand growth for natural gas is likely to remain firm.

Let Them Eat Cake

Given this scenario, it is likely shale gas will meet only a portion of future demand. Conventional gas will still have a role in feeding world energy hunger, and the offshore gas element of this increasingly so. In 2013, 30% of world natural gas production was offshore; in 2023 this is forecast to reach 36%. Accordingly, the offshore gas field investment outlook is positive. Offshore field operators are initiating schemes to utilise associated gas at mature oilfields. Moreover, development of offshore gas fields is increasingly perceived as economic. Gas fields account for 51% of fields under development and 48% of undeveloped offshore discoveries.

More so than oil, offshore gas growth is driven by mega-projects. Current examples include nine South Pars phases off Iran, Leviathan off Israel and Shah Deniz II in the Caspian, due onstream in 2015-17, 2017 and 2019. Major LNG projects planned offshore East Africa and Australia, entailing extensive subsea production systems and deployment of the world’s first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) vessels (like Shell’s “Prelude”), are also responsible much of the forecast growth in offshore gas. All in all then, gas looks to be quite a tasty slice of the offshore cake. Bon appétit!


OIMT201405Russia is forecast to account for 13% of world crude oil production and 18% of world natural gas production in 2014. While its prodigious Siberian flows tend to receive most of the credit for this feat, fields located off the country’s 16 million km of coastline are nonetheless projected to produce 390,000 bpd oil and 2.64 bcfd gas in 2014. So where exactly is Russian offshore production to be found? And what is the outlook?

Mastering the Arctic

As the Graph of the Month shows, offshore oil and gas production in Baltic & Arctic Russia stagnated after the break-up of the USSR, declining to 0.03m boepd in 2013, when it accounted for 4% of Russian offshore production. This trend was thrown into reverse when the Prirazlomnoye field came onstream in December 2013. Located 23km from shore in the Pechora Sea, the field is exploited via a ice-class platform and production is scheduled to reach 120,000 bpd by 2019. New technologies and robust oil prices are thus unlocking reserves hitherto stranded, and by 2023 Arctic oil and gas is forecast to constitute 11% of Russia’s offshore production.

Caspian and Crimean Conquests

Russia’s southern offshore fields, mainly in the Caspian, accounted for 9% of Russian offshore production in 2013. In the Caspian, as in the Arctic, harsh conditions have limited field development and disincentivised efforts to halt production decline. However, as in the Arctic, decline is now forecast to be arrested. Lukoil, for example, are planning substantial investment over the next four years at fields like Khvalynskoye and Yuri S. Kuvykin, where ice-class jack-up production units are likely to make development feasible. By 2023, the area is forecast to account for 24% of Russian offshore oil and gas production (excluding gas produced by fields off the Crimea, over which Russia now has de facto control, and which produced 410m cfd in 2013).

Expanding Eastwards

The Russian Far East is a relatively new area of offshore E&P. The Sakhalin-2 project started up in 1996 but offshore activity is still geographically limited, even if production volumes, at 0.78m boepd, are significant. The area accounted for 88% of Russian offshore production in 2013. Moreover, the Far East is Russia’s window on the developing economies of the Asia Pacific region, so companies are seeking to increase activity there, particularly with regards to LNG. In October 2013, the first Sakhalin-3 field, Kirinskoye, a subsea-to-shore development, began ramping up to 580m cfd. Further such field developments are planned out to 2023, when the area is projected to produce 0.95m boepd, its share falling to 65% despite new Capex due to faster Arctic and Caspian growth.

Thus production is forecast to grow in each of Russia’s offshore areas, driven largely by investment in high-spec jack-up, fixed platform and subsea field solutions. Total offshore oil production is projected to grow with a CAGR of 8.9% from 2014 to reach 890,000 bpd in 2023, and gas production likewise at 2.5% to reach 3.36 bcfd. Offshore would then account for 6.7% of the country’s oil and gas production, a far cry from the 2% nadir of post-Soviet decay.

OIMT_2013_09Global offshore production of natural gas totalled 98.3 billion cubic feet per day (bcfpd), or 17.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (mboepd) in 2012. In comparison, world offshore oil production in the same year was 24.4 mbpd. Thus in terms of aggregate energy output, gas accounted for 42% of combined offshore oil and gas production. Here we examine the strong growth trends associated with this substantial element of offshore production.

Gas Guzzling Growth

As the Graph of the Month shows, in the 30 year period 1983-2013 global demand for natural gas is projected to have risen by 130%: 82% for OECD and 189% for non-OECD countries. Developing economies’ gas demand overtook OECD gas demand in 2004, and since then non-OECD gas demand growth has accelerated to 192 bcfpd, exhibiting a 3.8% CAGR in the period 2008-13. However, whereas demand for oil in OECD countries fell 5.5% in the period 2008-13, gas demand still grew steadily, reaching a projected 151 bcfpd in 2013 with a 1.6% CAGR since 2008.

Production Buoyancy

Rising demand across the board has incentivised supplyside growth, manifest in the offshore sector as a 231% increase in gas production in the period 1983-2013. The graph shows that historically NW Europe and North America were the main offshore gas production regions, accounting for 54% (35 bcfpd) of world production at their 2001 peak. In 2008 Middle East/ISC production reached 20.6 bcfpd with the addition of gas from Iran’s Pars South field, thereby becoming the foremost offshore gas producing region. By 2013 it accounted for 33% of world offshore gas production. The rise of the Middle East was complemented by a more gradual but still vast rise in Asia Pacific production, from 14.0 bcfpd in 2000 to 22.7 bcfpd in 2013: 22% of world offshore gas output. NW Europe, North America and the Mediterranean account for 17%, 9% and 9% respectively.

Offshore Diffusion

At the start of September 2013 there were 261 fields under development that will produce associated or non-associated gas. 124 are scheduled to come onstream by end 2014, including 6 Pars South projects producing a total of 12.8 bcfpd. Much of the growth in offshore production in the mediumterm future is due to come from such large projects located in emergent offshore gas regions. For example, 2 trains of the Mozambique LNG project are scheduled to start up in 2018, using gas from the prolific offshore Rovuma Basin to produce LNG equivalent to 1.3 bcfpd natural gas, with 5.3 bcfpd from a further 8 trains to follow. In Australia and the East Mediterranean too, large projects like Greater Gorgon and Leviathan promise to significantly enhance world offshore gas production.

Although offshore production may have to compete with cheaper onshore (and in some regions, unconventional) gas production, global offshore gas production is nonetheless forecast to increase by a further 37% by 2020 to just under 140 bcfpd. The proliferation of large offshore gas projects and the overall trends in production and demand all suggest a bright future for offshore natural gas.