Archives for category: gas carrier

A shrinking global orderbook has been one of the more persistent features of the post-financial crisis years, with the volume of tonnage on order now down to c.30% of peak levels. However, a substantial volume of newbuild investment has still taken place over the period as a whole, and a greater focus on specific vessel types has left the current orderbook looking very different to a decade earlier.

For the full version of this article, please go to Shipping Intelligence Network.

 

In 2018 the ClarkSea Index had a very strong Q4, with the average in the final quarter well above that registered across the first three. It’s well known that shipping markets can be seasonal, and studying our ClarkSea Index illustrates that fairly well. But how seasonal actually are they, how far did last year’s Q4 stand out, and how much does a strong Q4 tell us about the year to come?

For the full version of this article, please go to Shipping Intelligence Network.

Climate change experts have recently estimated that the last four years have been the hottest on record, but in shipping it feels like a different matter altogether. As a whole the markets do appear to have seen some further gradual improvement in 2018, but without heating up too much. But do wider readings of the shipping ‘temperature’ tell us anything more?

For the full version of this article, please go to Shipping Intelligence Network.

A common ‘rule of thumb’ statistic in shipping market analysis, in order to give an idea of prospective capacity growth, is the orderbook expressed as a percentage of the existing fleet. Today, at a global fleet level, that figure stands at a historically relatively low level in dwt terms (10%), but what does that actually tell us? This week’s Analysis takes a look at the pros and cons of this widely used statistic.

 

For the full version of this article, please go to Shipping Intelligence Network.

In the broader context of firm global LNG demand growth, Australian offshore gas mega-projects have been a significant feature of the offshore sector for the last decade, driving innovation (think Prelude FLNG) and yielding rapid production growth. There are also a few projects projected to push output even higher in the short term, though against this backdrop, there are some uncertainties in the longer term.

For the full version of this article, please go to Offshore Intelligence Network.

At this time of year, icy conditions are not uncommon, but the warmth of the festive season is usually enough to melt even the coldest of hearts. Going into this year, shipping market activity might have still felt pretty iced up for many, but increased activity in a number of core areas in 2017 has seen the shipping market temperature rise a little…

For the full version of this article, please go to Shipping Intelligence Network.

 

Natural gas is set to account for an increasing share of the global energy mix in coming years, with gas consumption growing by an average of around 1.5%-2% a year out to 2040, according to energy forecasting agencies such as the IEA. And based on recent trends, if the consensus views on natural gas prove accurate, the implications for the offshore and LNG carrier fleets are likely to be significant.

Stepping On The Pedal

In 2016, global natural gas demand stood at an estimated 347bn cfd, up by 24% on the 280bn cfd consumed in 2006. Demand for natural gas in recent years has been driven by industrialisation in developing economies (Chinese gas demand, for example, grew at a CAGR of 13% in 2006-16) and environmental concerns the world over. Historically, the majority of trade in natural gas has been by pipeline, for instance from Eurasia to Europe. In 2015, pipelines still accounted for 68% of natural gas volumes moved globally.

However, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has become an increasingly important form in which gas is traded, even given the costs of complex liquefaction and regasification facilities. Over 50% of existing nameplate liquefaction capacity at LNG export terminals (349mtpa globally) has come online since 2005. As a corollary, from start 2006 to start March 2017, the LNG carrier fleet increased from 193 to 479 vessels and tripled in total capacity to 70.2m cubic metres of LNG.

Shifting It Up A Gear

Growth in the seaborne LNG trade is in turn closely linked with growth in offshore gas production, as major LNG exporters such as Qatar and more recently Australia use offshore gas fields to provide feedstock to LNG trains. Qatar accounted for 30% of LNG exports and 22% of existing liquefaction capacity in 2016, all fed via offshore gas, mostly from the giant North Field. In 2006, offshore fields accounted for 28% of global gas production and by 2016, 31%. This is set to rise to 32% (119bn cfd) in 2017, mainly due to field start-ups off Australia that are to feed LNG projects like Wheatstone. Finding, developing and supporting offshore gas fields on Australia’s NW Shelf has created demand for a range of vessels from the offshore fleet of over 13,500 units.

More Gas In The Tank

The exploitation of these remote reserves has also spawned the FLNG concept – vessels that can be used to exploit otherwise stranded gas. The LNG markets are clearly challenged at present but in the long term, planned FLNG projects in Australia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Mauritania and other areas could potentially sustain offshore gas production growth. Another major source of gas production growth has been the US shale gas sector, where production rose from 4bn cfd in 2007 to 48bn cfd in 2016. The US accounts for over 50% of liquefaction capacity under construction (while some planned projects entail liquefaction of shale gas on near-shore FLNGs) and is set to become a major LNG exporter in coming years.

So offshore gas production has grown as a share of total global gas production, as has US shale gas. Both trends can create opportunities for LNG and offshore vessels. And if, in line with consensus expectations, gas continues to grow as a share of the energy mix, then these trends may have a long and interesting road ahead.

SIW1265:Global Natural Gas Production And LNG Export Capacity